OJS doesn’t recognize the non-English alphabets (for example Arabic or Turkish alphabets )

I have just upgraded my OJS to but I realized that in the reference part after extracting the references and publishing it the non-English words automatically became to be as question mark like this ???.

Please see one example of references from here:


I thought that it might be from “theme” that is why I tried to change different themes but it didn’t work as well.

*There is no Error log messages in this regard.

It would be great to help me in this regard to find out why it is working like that.



Hi @Hourakhsh_AhmadNia,

See e.g.: Charset/encoding problem after upgrading from OJS to

Alec Smecher
Public Knowledge Project Team

good how did you solve this problem?

Thank you dear Alec Smecher
the link was useful and the problem has been solved. : )

Thank you for your message

Actually my web designer on “MySQL” used UTF-8 , which has general and universal fonts.